With rapid changes in technology, knowledge innovation has become more and more complex. Complex partners facilitate knowledge creation and innovation in complex problem-solving. Relying on R&D cooperation with forerunners, latecomers can acquire new knowledge factors and new ideas and use them to create new knowledge. This study demonstrated the knowledge innovation mechanism based on linkages between periphery knowledge and core knowledge with knowledge map theory and set methodology.
A case of R&D cooperation between latecomers and forerunners was introduced to verify this mechanism. The results show that latecomers could share forerunners’ periphery knowledge in R&D cooperation through formal and informal interaction and acquire the core knowledge factors in periphery knowledge based on the linkages between them. With these core knowledge factors, latecomers integrate them into their internal knowledge system and create new knowledge. By analyzing the linkages between periphery and core knowledge factors, this study creatively demonstrates the knowledge innovation mechanism in knowledge linkage perspective. It deepens the understanding of R&D cooperation between latecomers and forerunners and expands the focus of knowledge innovation theory.
Why global cooperation in science, technology, and innovation is more crucial than ever.
Unlocking the potential of Industry 4.0, or the fourth industrial revolution, in a post-pandemic world requires stronger global collaboration to ensure all countries have access to the technology and skills necessary.
Science, technology, and innovation (STI) can be a driving force for economic diversification and inclusive urban development as countries strive to rebuild their economies from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Industry 4.0 comprises artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things, and other new technologies designed to sense, predict and interact with the physical world and support production in real-time, thereby transforming the way things are produced.
The transformation can potentially be so impactful that it’s called Industry 4.0 to represent the fourth industrial revolution taking place in manufacturing. Paragraph 70 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development announced the launch of a "Technology Facilitation Mechanism" (TFM) in order to support the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Its goal is to facilitate multi-stakeholder collaboration and partnerships through the sharing of information, experiences, best practices, and policy advice among Member States, civil society, the private sector, the scientific community, United Nations entities, and other stakeholders.
All components of the TFM are operational:
1. UN Interagency Task Team on STI for the SDGs
The UN interagency task team on STI for the SDGs (IATT) is mandated to “promote coordination, coherence, and cooperation within the UN System on STI related matters, enhancing synergy and efficiency, in particular to enhance capacity-building initiatives”. It was initiated by UNDESA UNEP and initially comprised several UN entities, including UNDESA, UNEP, UNIDO, UNESCO, UNCTAD, ITU, WIPO and the World Bank. It was later opened to the participation of all United Nations agencies, funds and programmes and the functional commissions of the Economic and Social Council. Since then, the IATT membership has continued to increase. At present, it has 43 UN entities and 130 staff members active in ten workstreams (see below). The IATT is primarily working-level cooperation among expert staff and has been a catalyst for an unprecedented level of cooperation and information flow on science and technology issues in the UN system. DESA and UNCTAD are the coordinators of the IATT.
2. UN 10-Member-Group of High-level Representatives of Civil Society, Private Sector and Scientific Community to support the UN Technology Facilitation Mechanism (10 Member Group)
The 10-Member Group appointed by the Secretary-General is mandated to work with the IATT to prepare the annual STI Forum and to support the development and operationalization of the online platform (2030 Connect). In practice, several of them are actively involved in the various IATT work streams. Its members bring diverse expertise and experience across disciplines on science, technology, innovation and entrepreneurship for the SDGs. They are internationally recognized in their respective areas of work. As representatives of various stakeholder groups, they, among others, provide a link to the academies, universities, NGOs, and the private sector.
KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND COOPERATION FOR ACCESS TO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
Economic growth must be inclusive to provide sustainable jobs and promote equality.
Research and innovation are essential drivers of countries’ competitiveness, productivity and economic diversification. They also decisively contribute to identifying solutions to the main challenges of development
Obtaining a quality education is the foundation to improving people’s lives and sustainable development.
Investments in infrastructure are crucial to achieving sustainable development.
1. Multi-stakeholder Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs (STI Forum)
As requested by the General Assembly resolution 70/1 on 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the President of ECOSOC will convene the meetings of the Multi-stakeholder Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs (STI Forum) once a year to discuss science, technology and innovation cooperation around thematic areas for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. The General Assembly also decided that the meetings of the forum will be co-chaired by two Member States and will result in a summary of discussions elaborated by the two co-Chairs. The STI Forum is an important component of the Technology Facilitation Mechanism (TFM)
2. Online Platform (2030 Connect)
February 17, 2022 – The World Bank Board of Directors today approved a US$100 million loan to strengthen the National System of Science, Technology and Innovation in Peru (SINACTI). The project will promote research, development and innovation in three strategic areas for the country: climate change, health and the digital economy. To this end, it will reinforce three key aspects for SINACTI’s success:
i) governance and institutional reforms;
ii) human resources and knowledge generation; and
iii) technology and knowledge transfer among universities, public research institutions and the private sector.
Between 2000 and 2019, Peru enjoyed strong economic growth, supported by sound macroeconomic policies and a favorable external environment. Although the country's economy has become more diversified, it is still characterized by low private sector productivity and remains heavily dependent on commodity exports. The limited adoption of technology and innovation by industry partly explains the low productivity rates. A shortage of highly skilled labor also affects competitiveness and productivity. Finally, although Peru produces world-class knowledge in some areas (such as health), this does not always translate into innovation in the sector and is insufficient for overcoming the country’s challenges.
“A key gap for the favorable performance of science, technology and innovation (STI) in Peru is the shortage of high-level human resources in these areas. The project focuses on this aspect, emphasizing areas related to economic, social and environmental competitiveness, fields that are decisive for the country's integral development," said Benjamín Marticorena, president of the National Council for Science, Technology and Technological Innovation (CONCYTEC). “The project also actively supports the establishment of research and innovation networks with the participation of experts from around the country and their colleagues from other countries to achieve the full potential of effective collaboration. Additionally, the strengthening of SINACTI's institutional framework will facilitate networking,” he said.
The project has three components. The first aims to strengthen SINACTI member institutions and governance to promote innovation in Peru. To this end, it will improve the capacities of CONCYTEC and PROCIENCIA, as well as those of other SINACTI member institutions. The second component will finance research and postgraduate studies in an effort to develop human capacities to generate knowledge that improves the quality, quantity and economic, social and environmental relevance of research. This component will focus on women’s participation to help close gender gaps in research. The third component seeks to strengthen links between the private sector and academic institutions to accelerate technology transfer and generate business innovations based on science and technology.
"Research and innovation are essential drivers of countries’ competitiveness, productivity and economic diversification. They also decisively contribute to identifying solutions to the main challenges of development," said Marianne Fay, World Bank director for Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru. “With this project, we hope to contribute to a National System of Science, Technology and Innovation for Peru that promotes inclusive economic development while providing evidence to address the country’s social and environmental challenges, such as guaranteeing access to quality healthcare services, reducing regional gaps and adapting to and mitigating climate change,” she said.
This is the first of a series of three successive projects totaling US$ 300 million to improve SINACTI's contribution to productivity and economic diversification, with a focus on green growth and regional development.